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el8dihuj70 發表於 2013-5-30 19:23

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the practice can have serious environmental consequences, with farms pouring liquid waste into waterways. One of the biggest concerns, however, is disease, which can spread quickly among growing fish penned in a farm—and then to their wild cousins in the ocean, placing additional burdens on a population that is already declining. Farmed salmon in particular have proved vulnerable to a condition called heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), a disease that can kill up to 20% of infected fish. Since it was first detected in a single farm in Norway in 1999, the disease has spread to hundreds of farms there and now in Britain as well—but scientists didn t know what caused it.An epidemiologist at Columbia University, however, may know. In a study published in the open-access journal PLoS ONE, a team led by W. Ian Lipkin—the director of the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia s Mailman School of Public Health—found that the disease may be caused by a previously unknown reovirus, a form of double-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of animals. And they found the virus using the tools of the geneticist.Using more than 450 high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics,[url=http://www.lululemononsales.com]super yoga pants[/url], the team—which included investigators from Norway—looked for viral sequences in heart and kidney samples taken from fish that were suffering from HSMI and healthy farmed salmon. They found evidence of the virus in 96.5% of the HSMI samples and none of the healthy fish. “Our data provide compelling evidence that HSMI is associated with infection with a new reovirus,” said Gustavo Palacios, the first author of the study and an epidemiologist at the Center.Further research is still needed to definitively prove that the reovirus is causing HSMI—Koch s postulate, the gold standard for proving that a pathogen causes a disease, requires scientists to be able to culture the new germ from a sick subject and then infect a healthy one with it. The Columbia researchers haven t done that yet, but scientists in Norway are already developing a vaccine that would be able to protect farmed salmon—and if it works,[url=http://www.lululemononsales.com]lululemon deals[/url], that would also be conclusive evidence that the reovirus is behind the disease. Given how important farmed fish is becoming as the oceans are emptied—and given the risk that a disease in penned fish could decimate the waning stocks of wild salmon—there s no time to wait.Greetings from New Orleans, where I m about 1200 miles closer to BP s complex containment procedures above the site of the Deepwater Hozion sinking—yet I m pretty much still dependent on subsea camera web feeds like the rest of you. I m here to check out how the spill—and the cleanup—are progressing, and how the community is dealing with the worst environmental disaster in American history.But the real action isn t onshore right now—it s 40 miles southeast of the Louisiana coast and 5,000 feet beneath the surface of the Gulf of Mexico, where BP is performing a complicated underwater dance that might bring an earlier end to the gusher. The company has already swapped out the earlier, loosely fitting containment cap over the blown well and is now within hours of connecting a newer, tighter cap: the 3 ram capping stack. Once that s connected BP will be able to begin conducting pressure tests that will probe the physical integrity of the wellbore, which runs 13,000 feet below the ocean floor. If the tests show the pressure is stable or rising—meaning there aren t any other leaks around the wellbore from which oil might be escaping—BP may be able to close the open valves on the new cap and essentially shut off the ongoing leak. No more crude escaping into the Gulf. The number one priority is to get this flow stopped, said Doug Suttles, BP s chief operating officer, at an afternoon press briefing on Monday.A lot could still go wrong—after all, as BP loves to point out, the robots carrying out this operation are working in freezing cold,[url=http://www.lululemononsales.com]men s yoga clothing[/url], ink-dark waters a mile beneath the surface, where nothing of this complexity has ever been attempted. IceRelated articles:

  
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